|Nightmare. Henry Fuselli (1781)|
Nightmares as predictors of suicide.
Tanskanen, Antti; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Viinamäki, Heimo; Vartiainen, Erkki; Lehtonen, Johannes; Puska, Pekka
Sleep: Journal of Sleep and Sleep Disorders Research, Vol 24(7), Nov 2001, 844-847.
Examined the relationship between the frequency of nightmares and the risk of suicide. A prospective follow-up study in a general population of Finland starting in 1972. A total of 36,211 Ss (17,700 men and 18,511 women aged 25–64 yrs at baseline. The study included self-administered questionnaire (mainly questions on socioeconomic factors, medical history, health behavior, and psychosocial factors) and health examination at the local primary healthcare center. The frequency of nightmares was estimated. The Ss were followed until Dec. 31, 1995, or death. Information on deaths caused by suicide or other self-inflicted injury was obtained from the National Death Register by computerized record linkage using the national personal identification code assigned to every Finnish resident. Using the Cox proportional hazards regression model we controlled for several potential confounding factors. The frequency of nightmares was directly related to the risk of suicide. Among Ss having nightmares occasionally the adjusted relative risk of suicide was 57% higher, and among those reporting frequent nightmares 105% higher compared with Ss reporting no nightmares at all.